Article Abstract

A pilot study with palonosetron in the prophylaxis of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting

Authors: Vithusha Ganesh, Leah Drost, Carlo DeAngelis, Bo Angela Wan, Mark Pasetka, Stephanie Chan, Liying Zhang, May Tsao, Elizabeth Barnes, Natalie Pulenzas, Hans Chung, Pearl Zaki, Caitlin Yee, Edward Chow


Background: Palonosetron is an effective antiemetic in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), but has yet to be studied in the radiation setting. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of palonosetron in the prophylaxis of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV).
Methods: Patients without existing nausea and vomiting undergoing palliative radiotherapy to sites with emetic risk were prescribed palonosetron 0.5 mg orally before the start of radiation treatment, and every other day until completion of treatment. Patients were followed up in acute (day 1 of treatment to day 1 after treatment) and delayed phases (days 2–10 after treatment). The primary endpoint was control of vomiting. Complete control was defined as no use of rescue medication and no episodes of nausea or vomiting. Secondary endpoints included control of nausea and quality of life (QOL). QOL was assessed with the Functional Living Index—Emesis and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL Questionnaire—Core 15 Palliative (C15-PAL).
Results: In all evaluable patients (n=75), complete control of vomiting was 93.3% in the acute phase and 93.2% in the delayed phase. Complete control of nausea was 74.7% in the acute phase and 74.0% in the delayed phase.
Conclusions: Results suggest improved control in RINV compared to historical reports with first generation serotonin receptor antagonists (RA). A randomized study will be needed to confirm this finding.